Vaccines for Adults

Flu Vaccine

Everyone should undergo a flu vaccine once a year. The vaccine is usually available in late summer or early autumn, and it offers protection for the entire year.

Flu vaccine is dead. It does not contain “a little bit of the flu,” and it is therefore impossible to get the flu from the vaccine.

Flu can be a debilitating, even fatal illness. The disease spreads fast, and it can develop into a life-threatening pneumonia or other critical illness. Serious complications can occur in people who are young and otherwise healthy.

Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis (TdAP) Vaccine

This vaccine should be administered at least every ten years.

Tetanus is a neurological disorder caused by a common bacteria. Tetanus infections can occur from even small scrapes and wounds. Fortunately, the vaccine is effective.

Pertussis (whooping cough) is known for causing a 100-day cough. The disease is highly contagious, and it can occur in epidemics In babies and children, pertussis can be fatal. It is particularly important for fathers or those who plan to be fathers to undergo this vaccine.

Vaccines for Adolescents and Young Adults

Adolescents need to ensure that they have received standard childhood vaccines. For teenagers who grew up in Arizona, this information is often available to us through a state-wide database. For others, it may be necessary to contact your former pediatrician to obtain vaccine records

Flu Vaccine

See Above

Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis (TdAP) Vaccine

See Above

Meningitis Vaccine

Bacterial meningitis is a dangerous, highly-contagious illness. It is most common among teenagers and university students. Meningitis is life-threatening, and it can even cause death in less than 24 hours. Teenagers and university students should be vaccinated every five years.


Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a common virus that can be spread both sexually or not sexually. In women, it is the number one cause of cervical cancer. In men, human papilloma virus can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, genital and anal cancers, and it has been linked to heart disease and prostate cancer. The HPV vaccine is a dead vaccine. It is administered in a series of two vaccines for men under age 15, three doses for guys who are 15 and older.

Common Questions About Vaccines

I get sick every time I get a vaccine.

The majority of vaccines are dead. There are no complete germs in the vaccines, and it is therefore impossible to get sick from the vaccine.

When vaccines were first invented, the vaccine contained a small amount of the live virus or bacteria. The patient got “a little sick” from the vaccine and developed immunity to the disease. Modern vaccines use only proteins—parts of viruses or bacteria.

In some instances, patients can have an immune response, such as a slight fever, a sore arm, or redness around the injection site.


Can my body handle all of these vaccines at once?

Yes. The tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (TdAP) vaccine contains three antigens. A single sneeze can contain about 200 million antigens.

Do vaccines cause autism? Are you sure? Why is this still in the news?

In the 1990s, a British physician published a paper linking the measles vaccine to a bowel disorder. Parents had enrolled their children in the study, and one parent suggested that the vaccine might be linked to autism spectrum disorder. This was shown to be false since some children in the study had behavioral problems before they received the vaccine. The article was retracted, and its author lost his medical license.

Autism spectrum disorder can be difficult for parents, families, and patients. The cause of the disease is unknown, and treatments are limited. For this reason, many have sought to find a cause for the illness: a nutritional problem, environmental exposure, etc.

The criteria to establish a diagnosis of autism changed. More children are now diagnosed with autism, so there is an illusion that the disease has grown or spread.

I've never seen anyone with measles. Why should I be vaccinated?

Measles, and other vaccine-preventable diseases, do happen. You might not have seen this disease because people are vaccinated. There is now greater travel to and from countries where vaccination is less common, people with diseases that affect the immune system now live longer but they are more susceptible to some infectious diseases, and there has been an increase in vaccine refusal by patients and parents.


NeedLe Phobia

At least ten percent of American adults have a fear of needles. All of us recognize that immunizations and blood draws can be uncomfortable. Please speak up! Let us know that you’re anxious, and we’ll do everything we can to keep you comfortable. Let us know if you would like to lay down, if you would like some water, or anything else we can do to keep you at ease.



Men & Cancer

The word “cancer” is frightening to most people. In reality, cancer is quite common, and it is often completely curable. Many cancers can be cured if the disease is caught early, and if you take action quickly.

There is no “blood test for cancer,” nor a single type of x-ray or screening test. Every guy is different. Preventing cancer and screening for cancer depend on one’s age, family history, and other risk factors.

Since cancer includes such a wide range of diseases, there is no single vitamin, pill, or nutrient that prevents cancer.











Skin Cancer

Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

This is the most common type of cancer in the United States, and it includes basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. These tend to be more common with age, and they are related to sun exposure.


Malignant melanoma is a much rarer but more serious form of skin cancer. Although this disease can spread, most cases are caught early, and it is a treatable illness.



45,000 men per year are diagnosed with melanoma; about  6,200 men will die from this disease every year.

The incidence of melanoma in men has increased 17 times since the 1950s.


Risk factors for Skin Cancer

1.     Excessive sun exposure

2.     Family history of melanoma

3.     Fair skin and hair

4.     Many large or irregular moles


Preventing Skin Cancer

As we say in Australia, “slip, slop, slap”

Slip on a shirt

Slop on some sunscreen

Slap on a hat


Screening for Skin Cancer

An annual check-up, including a skin exam, with a primary care provider is helpful for most men.

For men at higher risk, at least an annual visit with a dermatologist is recommended.


Symptoms of Potential Skin Cancer

Skin cancer usually appears as a painless mark on the skin, which appears different from others. It may bleed or appear to be an ulcer. Remember the “ABCDE” of suspicious skin lesions:

Asymmetry: an asymmetric lesion—bigger on one side than the other

Borders: irregular or blurred borders

Color: mixed or inconsistent coloring

Diameter: greater than 6 millimeters or ¼ inch (about the size of a pencil eraser)

Evolving: a lesion that is growing and changing over time

If you find a suspicious lesion, don’t panic. Even if it is melanoma, this is often a treatable illness. Many cases are treatable just by removing the skin lesion.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men aside from non-melanoma skin cancer.  In many cases, prostate cancer does not grow or spread. 


172,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer annually, about 28,343 will die from the disease each year

Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer

1.  Prostate cancer is more common as one gets older. The majority of cases occur after age 50.

2.  Prostate cancer is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer, especially a father or brother with the disease.

3. This type of cancer is more common in African American men.

Screening for Prostate Cancer

For men of average risk (no family history, no symptoms) screening for prostate cancer is an individual choice. Screening can detect cancer early, but the current screening methods are not entirely reliable. There is a risk of false negative test, and there is a risk of anxiety, expense, and physical harm from a false positive test.

Screening consists of a physical examination of the prostate through the rectum. This uncomfortable but quick test provides the opportunity to feel about one-third of the prostate. The physical examination is augmented by the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

1. Difficulty urinating (trouble starting a stream, pain)

2. Frequent or incomplete urination

3. Blood in urine

4. Painful ejaculation


Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the secomd most common cancer in men. The majority of cases are caused by smoking.


113,300 men are diagnosed with lung cancer every year; about 85,000 men die from the disease every year

Risk Factors for Lung Cancer

1. Eighty to 90 percent of lung cancer cases in the United States are attributable to smoking.

2. Men who smoke are 15 to 30 times more likely to develop lung cancer. This includes men who smoke just a few cigarettes per day.

3. More than 7,000 Americans die from second-hand smoke every year.

4. Other risk factors include a personal or family history of lung cancer, exposure to radon, a history of radiation therapy, and exposures to asbestos, arsenic, diesel fumes, silica, and chromium.


Screening for LUNG Cancer

An annual CT scan of the lungs is advised for the following people:

1. A history of smoking at least one pack per day for 30 years

2. Over age 55

3. Still smoking or quit less than 15 years ago


Symptoms of LUNG Cancer

1. A cough that will not go away

2. Shortness of breath

3. Wheezing

4. Unexplained weight loss.


Colorectal Cancer

Cancers of the colon and rectum are the third most common cancer in men. Many cases are diagnosed early and cured before the disease spreads.



About 74,000 men are diagnosed with colorectal cancer every year. About 27,000 men die every year from the disease.

Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer

1. Family history of colon cancer, especially a parent or sibling

2. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease

3. Lack of physical activity

4. Excessive alcohol consumption

5. Smoking

6. Low-fiber diet

7. Being overweight or obese


Screening for Colorectal Cancer

There are two options for men over 50 (younger in the presence of certain risk factors)

1. A screening colonoscopy about every 10 years

2. A test for blood in the stool (fecal occult blood test) annually


Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

1. Blood in the stool

2. Abdominal pain

3. Change in bowel habits

4. Unexplained weight loss


Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, especially ages 14 to 35.



About 8,850 men are diagnosed every year; about 410 men die from the disease every year.

The number of cases of testicular cancer has gone up by 72 percent since the 1970s

Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer

1. An undescended testicle at birth 

2. Family history of testicular cancer, especially a father or brother

3. Pelvic surgery at an early age, such as a hernia repair

4. Testicular injury or trauma

5. Marijuana use (smoking or edible)


Screening for Testicular Cancer

Men at risk for testicular cancer should conduct a testicular self-examination once month. A testicular exam is also an important part of a routine checkup once a year.


Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is usually painless. It is often a pea- or marble-sized, firm mass. In some cases it can have a sand-like texture.

Oral & Throat Cancer

Cancers of the mouth, gums, tongue, and throat are more common with age, but these diseases are becoming much more common. From just 2011 to 2015, the number of insurance claims for oral cancers rose 61 percent.



37,000 men are diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal cancers every year; 7,300 die from these diseases every year.


Risk Factors for Oral Cancer

1. Chewing or smoking tobacco, smoking marijuana

2. Exposure to Human Papilloma Virus (this is now prevented by a vaccine)

3. Excessive alcohol consumption

4. Poor oral hygiene


Preventing Oral and Throat Cancers

1. Undergo routine dental cleanings and examinations

2.  Do not chew tobacco

3. Do not smoke

4. Consume alcohol only in moderation


Symptoms of Oral Cancer

1. Mouth ulcers

2. Bad breath

3. Red or white plaques on the tongue, gums, or inside the mouth

adult-attractive-beard-413764 (1).jpg

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is 100 times more common in women, but it does occur in men. Unfortunately, it is often caught at a late stage. It is important for patients and healthcare providers to be aware of the risk of breast cancer



2,550 men are diagnosed with breast cancer every year; about 480 will die from this disease


Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

1. Family history of breast cancer: (17 percent of men with breast cancer have at least one sister with breast cancer or their mother has had breast cancer)

2. Testicular diseases

3. Mumps

4. A history of enlarged breasts (gynecomastia)


Symptoms of Breast Cancer

1. A breast mass

2. A bleeding breast lesion

3. Bleeding discharge from the nipples

4. Nipple inversion

5. Breast enlargement or tenderness

6. Skin changes

7. Enlarged lymph nodes near the collar bone or in the underarms


Thirty percent of men have experienced an episode of depression during their lifetimes.


1. Unexplained anger, aggression, or irritability

2. Fatigue

3. Feeling “flat,” empty, or hopeless

4. Feeling sad or emotional for no reason

5. Unexplained physical aches and pains, such as stomach problems or headaches

6. Withdrawing from family and friends

7. Anxiety and restlessness

8. Loss of interest in work, school, family activities, or relationships

9. Poor concentration

10. Changes in diet (overeating or not easting enough)

11. Use of drugs or alcohol to treat the symptoms



Nobody is entirely sure what causes depression. Some men have genetic risks for depression, such as siblings or parents who have been treated for depression. In other cases, depression is triggered by an event such as a separation, loss of a job, financial problems, or family stress.

Certain diseases can also lead to depression. These include heart disease, diabetes, Parkinson disease, and hormone problems (including low testosterone and thyroid disease).



No, not necessarily. Antidepressant medications can help many men. But these are not the only form of treatment. Some men benefit from just talking about their stressful situations, increasing aerobic exercise, and uncomplicated behavioral techniques to ease the symptoms.



About one in five men experience anxiety during their lives. Anxiety and depression can coexist, and some of the symptoms can overlap.



1. Worrying

2. Irritability

3. Avoidance

4. Catastrophic thinking

5. Racing heart

6. Panic attacks

7. Tense muscles

8. Insomnia

9. Shortness of breath

10. Agitation or anger

11. Poor concentration

12. Turning to alcohol or other drugs to ease the symptoms



Social anxiety is the most common form of anxiety in teenagers and younger men. It is characterized by:

1. Fear of being judged

2. Fear of embarrassment

3. Fear of strangers

4. Avoidance of crowded situations

5. Avoidance of public speaking

6. Avoidance of social situations



Like depression, there can be a genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders. In other cases, anxiety may arise from troubling life circumstances, or an enduring pattern of anxious thoughts.



No, not necessarily. Although there are medications to help treat anxiety, sometimes it can be treated through mindfulness, physical exercise, breathing exercises, and talk therapy.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

About 11 percent of adolescents have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). About 4.5 percent of adults have this disorder

Attention and focus problems can affect many parts of life: academics, relationships—even a risk for auto accidents. The symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can overlap with other illnesses, so treatment requires both care and caution.



1. Carelessness

2. Poor concentration

3. Failure to complete tasks

4. Avoiding tasks that require organization

5. Distractability

6. Losing personal belongings

7. Fidgeting

8. Interrupting others



The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it does tend to run in families. 



No, not necessarily. There are effective medications for ADHD, but treatment is an individual decision. In the case of adolescents with ADHD, the choice to take medication is shared between the teenager, his or her parents/guardians, and the healthcare provider.

Heart Disease

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in men in the United States. About half of men who die from heart disease have no symptoms.


1. Family history of heart disease, especially at a young age (55 or younger)

2. High blood pressure

3. Smoking

4.  Diabetes

5. Being overweight or obese

6. Lack of physical activity

7. Excessive alcohol intake



1. Have your blood pressure checked at least once a year

2. Undergo a blood test to measure your cholesterol and blood sugar. Based on your results, your primary care provider can tell you how frequently you should have these rechecked.

3. Undergo a routine checkup once a year.

Vitamins & Supplements

  1. US law permits vitamins and supplements to be sold without the same regulations that apply to prescription or over-the-counter medications.
  2. Vitamin and supplement manufacturers do not need to prove that the type and quantity of the vitamin on the label matches what is in the bottle. In some cases, tablets or capsules may not contain any vitamins or supplements at all.
  3. Vitamins and supplements can interact with other medications, sometimes causing dangerous interactions.
  4. Vitamin deficiency is rare in the United States. The American diet typically contains a more than adequate quantity of vitamins and nutrients.
  5. There is no research to support taking a multivitamin. In fact, some research suggests that multivitamins can even be harmful.

STDs and HIV

The rate of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs or STIs) is increasing. Many sexually-transmitted diseases have no symptoms.


Preventing sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV

1. Use condoms.

2. Undergo STD and HIV screening if you have multiple partners, or if you are unsure of your partner’s sexual history.

3.  For most men, screening gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV, syphilis, and type 2 herpes consists of a simple blood test and urine test.

4. If you have not been vaccinated for human papilloma virus (HPV), and you are age 26 or younger, make certain that you undergo the HPV vaccination series (three vaccinations).

5. If you are at high risk for HIV, consider taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent you from contracting HIV.




Low Testosterone

Low testosterone can result from inadequate sleep, genetic disorders, certain medications, prior use of steroids, stress, and more.

Symptoms of low testosterone can be vague, but include marked loss of libido, loss of muscle mass, fatigue, depressed mood, sexual dysfunction, unexplained weight gain, breast and testicular changes, and more.

In some cases, treatment  involves injections of testosterone; other patients benefit from oral medications. In other instances, low testosterone is best treated by managing underlying causes like excess weight and sleep apnea.

There is no consensus about what defines a low testosterone level. Every man is different, but—in general—a level that is repeatedly below 300 ng/dL is considered to be low in a man who is experiencing symptoms.

If you are interested in pursuing testosterone replacement...

  • The first step is to have your blood tested. If you have not had your testosterone checked in the past six months, visit Walk in Labs. Order a Total Testosterone (serum) rather than a more expensive or complicated test.

  • If your testosterone is low, we would invite you in to discuss your symptoms, recheck your testosterone, undergo a physical examination, and obtain additional laboratory tests. Based on these findings we can recommend a plan of care. We will also make every effort to make sure that the treatments we provide meet the requirements of your insurance plan.

  • If your testosterone is within the normal range, we invite you to come in to discuss your symptoms, and to see if another illness could be causing your symptoms. Low testosterone can look similar to low thyroid, depression, diabetes, and other illnesses.

If you are receiving testosterone replacement therapy...

  • Testosterone replacement can be complicated, and it requires diligent follow-up.

  • You will be obligated to come in for routine follow-up visits and blood tests every three to six months, including a more detailed physical examination once a year.

  • We require you to pay strict adherence to the treatment plan for the greatest benefit and for your safety.




Routine Checkups

One of the most important services we can provide is a routine checkup. We ask that you come in once a year for a checkup. Most medical insurance plans allow a routine checkup once a year with no out of pocket cost (no copay, no coinsurance, no deductible).

How might a checkup at Men’s Medical differ from somewhere else?
Every clinician has his or her own style of conducting examinations, and some clinics and offices have more time, particular areas of expertise or interest, or a particular

Some clinics conduct checkups in less than ten minutes, others do so over the course of multiple visits on multiple days. At Men’s Medical, we believe in a thorough but reasonable approach. In most cases, we block 45 to 60 minutes for your visit, but that includes paperwork, as well as any immunizations or other tests you need or that we recommend.

The elements of a checkup may vary based on your age, medical history, and whether you are a new or established patient. The components of the visit are:











Medical History

The first part of the visit involves your medical history. This includes a number of topics ranging from medications you take, surgeries or hospitalizations in the past, how you are feeling, and any symptoms you might be experiencing.

Your medical history also includes asking about your family history to see if you have any risks for hereditary diseases.

We will also ask a “social history,” which includes questions about tobacco, alcohol, and your sexual history. Again, this information is private. It is important to be honest so that we can establish any particular risks you may have for an injury or illness.

Other questions are about your psychological wellbeing; if you are experiencing any emotional concerns such as anxiety or depression.

Lastly, we always ensure that your vaccines are up to date. And we make recommendations on vaccines that you might be missing, or vaccines that might be appropriate if you are traveling.





Man with short beard.jpg

Keeping You Comfortable

For some men, undergoing a physical examination can be uncomfortable, unfamiliar, or embarrassing. Other men are more at ease.  Some men prefer a “running commentary” describing each step; others would prefer to just “get through it” without discussion. Let us know what is most comfortable for you.  


Chaperones and Guests

You may request a chaperone, and you may also have a friend, parent, or relative accompany you.


Your Modesty and Privacy

Men’s Medical has cloth examination gowns if you would like them. We value your preference; some men feel uncomfortable wearing gowns; we will do everything we can to honor your preferences.

Physical Examination

Although this is not a complete list, this gives you an idea of what the examination includes and why.

Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat
This examination includes looking at the backs of your eyes with an ophthalmoscope, looking in your ears to ensure that the drums are intact, and checking the back of your throat for infections or other abnormalities.

We are examining your neck for how easily it moves, if there are any swollen lymph glands, and if you have any enlargement or masses on your thyroid gland (in the front of your neck.)

This exam includes looking at your chest to ensure that your lungs expand symmetrically, and listening to your lungs with a stethoscope for any abnormal sounds. You will be asked to take deep breaths, as the clinician moves the stethoscope from side to side, on the front and back of your chest.

This examination includes feeling your heart as it beats against the wall of your chest (this partially a test to see if your heart is enlarged.) Then your healthcare provider will listen to your heart with a stethoscope. The exam is conducted you with multiple sides of the stethoscope to hear different heart sounds more clearly, and we will likely examine your heart in multiple positions, such as sitting, lying down, standing, or lying on your left side. This is a way to hear your heart better, and to check for specific abnormalities.

Blood Vessels
This examination includes the pulses in your wrists, neck, and the pulses in the groin. This is to ensure that your heart is pumping blood equally to all parts of your body. 

Examining the stomach includes listening with a stethoscope for abnormal sounds (such as from your stomach or blood vessels), feeling your stomach for any tenderness or masses, and examining your liver and spleen for any enlargement.



Lymph Glands
In addition to the lymph glands in your neck, this exam includes the lymph glands near your collarbone, under your arms, and in your groin. Swelling of lymph glands is often a sign of infection, and—in rare cases—a sign of cancer.

Breast cancer is rare in men, but should not be ignored. Moreover, breast problems can signify problems with your liver or reproductive system. This quick exam includes feeling for masses, tenderness, and checking for discharge.

Nervous System
The neurological examination is usually pretty quick because we are examining your nerves as we examine other parts of your body. This examination will usually check the reflexes in your knees, and sometimes in your elbows and wrists. This is to check for problems in your spinal cord, or certain neurological and thyroid problems that show up with abnormal reflexes.

Especially during sports examinations, this examination will check to see if your spine is straight, if the muscles in your upper and lower body are symmetric and strong, and you may be asked to move your shoulders, legs, or to squat down to evaluate muscle strength.

Testicles and Hernias Examination
All of us recognize hat this can be uncomfortable or embarrassing, but this is a quick and painless examination. Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer in young men, and the rate of new cases in the USA has doubled in the past 40 years.

You will be asked to pull down your underwear and/or move your examination gown to examine your penis, testicles, and groin. and it is also important to check for abnormalities of the urethra and foreskin (if present).

Hernias can affect your ability to lift heavy objects, among other problems. Your healthcare provider will place a finger in the area just above each testicle and ask you to cough or squeeze down the muscles in your stomach to see if a hernia is present.  (You are asked to turn your head to the side so that you do not cough in the examiner’s face).

Prostate examinations are recommended only for certain men based on their age, symptoms, and medical history. Most men do not need to undergo this examination.

Part of the entire examination is to examine your skin for abnormal skin coloring, unusual moles, or any other signs of concern. We are always on the lookout for signs of skin cancer as well as other disease that might present with skin abnormalities.


Wrapping Up

After you have had the opportunity to get dressed, your healthcare provider will sit down and review his or her findings, recommendations for any tests, immunizations, or medications. We will also take the time to make any other recommendations about ways that you can stay healthy.

If laboratory tests, such as a blood test, are recommended, we will usually refer you to a nearby lab.

Above all, we invite your questions or concerns you may have about your health.